A history of the establishment and impact of the silk and spice trade

Foreign Influence Renewed interest in the Silk Road only emerged among western scholars towards the end of the nineteenth century. A global spice route had been created: The next major step in the development of the Silk Road was the expansion of the Greek empire of Alexander the Great into Central Asia.

They were the main caravan merchants of Central Asia. The Tang dynasty established a second Pax Sinicaand the Silk Road reached its golden age, whereby Persian and Sogdian merchants benefited from the commerce between East and West.

He also made reports on neighbouring countries that he did not visit, such as Anxi ParthiaTiaozhi MesopotamiaShendu Pakistan and the Wusun. For the next two and half centuries, Spain controlled a vast trade network that linked three continents: Learn More in these related Britannica articles: Though silk was certainly the major trade item from China, many other goods were traded, and various technologies, religions and philosophies, as well as the bubonic plague the "Black Death"also traveled along the Silk Routes.

It has been suggested that the Chinese crossbow was transmitted to the Roman world on such occasions, although the Greek gastraphetes provides an alternative origin. Trade on the Silk Road was a significant factor in the development of the civilizations of China, the Indian subcontinent, Persia, Europe and Arabia.

They continued to expand eastward, especially during the reign of Euthydemus — BCEwho extended his control beyond Alexandria Eschate to Sogdiana. In Christopher Columbus sailed under the flag of Spainand in John Cabot sailed on behalf of England, but both failed to find the storied spice lands though Columbus returned from his journey with many new fruits and vegetables, including chile peppers.

This emerged after various countries started to explore the region for their territories expanding under interest involvement of the foreign powers. The books written by Stein, Hedin and others have brought the perceived oriental mystery of the route into western common knowledge. To satisfy the curious, to protect their market, and to discourage competitors, they spread fantastic tales to the effect that cassia grew in shallow lakes guarded by winged animals and that cinnamon grew in deep glens infested with poisonous snakes.

The British, in particular, were interested in consolidating some of the land north of their Indian territories.

Spice trade

It was becoming rather easier and safer to transport goods by water rather than overland. Soldiers sent to guard the wall were often paid in silk which they traded with the nomads. Part of the data about eastern Asia provided by Muslim geographers of the 10th century actually goes back to Sogdian data of the period — and thus shows the survival of links between east and west.

After Hedin, the archaeological race started. Ban Chao and Ban Yong conducted several expeditions to the Western Regions to suppress rebellions and re-established the Protectorate of the Western Regions, ensuring peace and trade along this important route.

Even the rest of the nations of the world which were not subject to the imperial sway were sensible of its grandeur, and looked with reverence to the Roman people, the great conqueror of nations.

Some scholars prefer the term "Silk Routes" for reason that the road connected an extensive transcontinental network of trade routes, though few were more than rough caravan tracks.

The route of the Silk Road became important as a path for communication between different parts of the Empire, and trading was continued. He followed the northern branch round the Taklimakan on his outward journey, and the southern route on his return; he carefully recorded the cultures and styles of Buddhism along the way.

Diplomatic relations were built up with several countries along the route, and this increase the volume of trade Chinese merchants brought to the area. Ernest Dupuy and Trevor N.

The individual states has mostly been assimilated, and the threats from marauding peoples was rather less.

Sogdians played a major role in facilitating trade between China and Central Asia along the Silk Roads as late as the 10th century, their language serving as a lingua franca for Asian trade as far back as the 4th century.

However, these fortifications were not all as effective as intended, as the Chinese lost control of sections of the route at regular intervals.

In China, the railway connecting Lanzhou to Urumchi has been extended to the border with Kazakhstan, where on 12th September it was finally joined to the former Soviet railway system, providing an important route to the new republics and beyond.

Han general Ban Chao led an army of 70, mounted infantry and light cavalry troops in the 1st century CE to secure the trade routes, reaching far west to the Tarim basin. Xiongnu and Tibetan bandits soon learned of the precious goods travelling up the Gansu Corridor and skirting the Taklimakan, and took advantage of the terrain to plunder these caravans.

Dupuy suggest that in 36 BCE, a "Han expedition into central Asia, west of Jaxartes River, apparently encountered and defeated a contingent of Roman legionaries.History of Silk Road Big Wild Goose Pagoda From the second century BC to the end of the fourteenth century AD, a great trade route originated from Chang'an (now Xian) in the east and ended at the Mediterranean in the west, linking China with the Roman Empire.

The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and mi-centre.com was central to cultural interaction between the regions for many centuries.

The Silk Road refers to both the terrestrial and the maritime routes connecting East Asia and Southeast Asia with East Africa, West Asia and Southern Europe. The Silk Road derives its name from the lucrative trade in silk carried.

If the modern age has a definitive beginning, it was sparked by the spice trade, some historians have argued. America by accident. Heather Whipps writes about history, anthropology and health. Spice trade, the cultivation, preparation, transport, and merchandising of spices and herbs, an enterprise of ancient origins and great cultural and economic significance.

first circumnavigation of the globeThe first circumnavigation of the globe was led by Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan. The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes, formally established during the Han Dynasty of China, which linked the regions of the ancient world in commerce between BCE CE.

The history of the Silk Road pre-dates the Han Dynasty in practice, however, had a much greater impact on culture than did silk. The rich spices of. The Silk Road History. Overview:The Silk Road, cross Asia from China to Europe, Trade on the Silk Road was a significant factor in the development of the civilizations of China, the Indian subcontinent, Persia, Europe and Arabia.

with people of many different nationalities selling everything from spice and wool to livestock and silver.

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A history of the establishment and impact of the silk and spice trade
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